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Formulation types
Aug 03, 2018
Table 1: Technical materials and technical concentrates
CodeNameDescription
TCTechnical MaterialsThe material must consist of technical material together with related manufacturing impurities free from visible extraneous matter and added modifying agents, except stabilizers if required. This technical material must comply with the APVMA standard.
TKTechnical ConcentratesThe material must consist of technical concentrate together with related manufacturing impurities, free from visible extraneous matter and added modifying agents except for the diluent and stabilizer, if required. This technical material must comply with the APVMA standard on a dry weight basis.
Table 2: Solid formulations for direct use
CodeNameDescription
DPDustable powdersA free-flowing powder suitable for dusting.
DSPowders for dry seed treatmentA powder for application in the dry state, directly to the seed.
DTTablets for direct applicationA formulation in the form of tablets to be applied individually and directly in the field and/or bodies of water, without preparation of a spraying solution or dispersion.
EGEmulsifiable granulesA granular formulation, which may contain water-insoluble formulants, to be applied as an oil-in-water emulsion of the active constituent(s) after disintegration in water.
EPEmulsifiable powdersA powder formulation, which may contain water-insoluble formulants, to be applied as an oil-in-water emulsion of the active constituent(s) after dispersion in water.
GRGranulesA free-flowing solid formulation of a defined granule size range ready to use.
GWWater-soluble gel (see note)A gelatinized formulation to be applied as an aqueous solution.
SGWater-soluble granulesA formulation consisting of granules to be applied as a true solution of the active ingredient after dissolution in water, but which may contain insoluble inert ingredients.
SPWater-soluble powdersA powder formulation to be applied as a true solution of the active constituent after dissolution in water, but which may contain insoluble inert ingredients.
SSWater-soluble powder for seed treatment see noteA powder to be dissolved in water before application to the seed.
STWater-soluble tabletsA formulation in the form of tablets to be used individually, to form a solution of the active ingredient after disintegration in water. The formulation may contain water-insoluble formulants.
WGWater-dispersible granulesA formulation consisting of granules to be applied after disintegration and dispersion in water.
WPWettable powdersA powder formulation to be applied as a suspension after dispersion in water.
WSWater-dispersible powders for slurry seed treatmentA powder to be dispersed at high concentration in water before application as slurry to the seed.
WTWater-dispersible tabletsFormulation in the form of tablets to be used individually, to form a dispersion of the active constituent after disintegration in water.

Note: These formulation types are not listed in the FAO/WHO Manual.

Table 3: Liquid formulations—simple solutions
CodeNameDescription
LSSolutions for seed treatmentA clear to opalescent liquid to be applied to the seed either directly or as a solution of the active constituent after dilution in water. The liquid may contain water-insoluble formulants.
OLOil-miscible liquidsA liquid, homogeneous formulation to be applied as a homogeneous liquid after dilution in an organic liquid.
SLSoluble concentratesA clear to opalescent liquid to be applied as a solution of the active constituent after dilution in water. The liquid may contain water-insoluble formulants.
ULUltra-low-volume (ULV) liquidsA homogeneous liquid ready for use through ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment.
Table 4: Liquid formulations—solutions for dispersion
CodeNameDescription
DCDispersible concentratesA liquid homogeneous formulation to be applied as a solid dispersion after dilution in water. (Note: There are some formulations that have characteristics intermediate between DC and EC.)
ECEmulsifiable concentratesA liquid, homogeneous formulation to be applied as an emulsion after dilution in water.
Table 5: Liquid formulations—emulsions
CodeNameDescription
ESEmulsions for seed treatmentA stable emulsion for application to the seed, either directly or after dilution.
EWEmulsions, oil-in-waterA fluid, heterogeneous formulation consisting of a solution of pesticide in an organic liquid dispersed as fine globules in a continuous water phase.
MEMicro-emulsionsA clear to opalescent, oil- and water-containing liquid, to be applied directly or after dilution in water, when it may form a diluted miro-emulsion or a conventional emulsion.
Table 6: Liquid formulations—suspensions
CodeNameDescription
CSAqueous capsule suspensionsA stable suspension of capsules in a fluid, normally intended for dilution with water before use.
FSSuspension concentrates for seed treatmentA stable suspension for application to the seed, either directly or after dilution.
ODOil-based suspension concentratesA stable suspension of active constituent(s) in water-immiscible fluid, which may contain other, dissolved active constituent(s), intended for dilution with water before use.
SCAqueous suspension concentratesA stable suspension of active constituent(s) with water as the fluid, intended for dilution with water before use.
Table 7: Liquid formulations —dual character formulations
CodeNameDescription
SEAqueous suspo-emulsionsA fluid, heterogeneous formulation consisting of a stable dispersion of active constituent(s) in the form of solid particles and fine globules in a continuous water phase.
Table 8: Formulations prepared as devices
CodeNameDescription
MCMosquito coilsA coil that burns (smoulders) without producing a flame and releases the active constituent into the local atmosphere as a vapour or smoke.
MVVaporising matsA mat made from pulp, or other suitable inert materials, and impregnated with an active constituent. The mat is intended for use in a heating unit designed to produce slow volatilisation of the active constituent.
LVLiquid vaporisersA liquid formulation in a cartridge or bottle, designed to fit a suitable heating unit, from which the formulation passes up a heated wick and evaporates into the local atmosphere.
Table 9: Systems for spraying solutions and other liquids
CodeNameDescription
AEAerosol dispensersThe product must consist of a liquid formulation in a pressurised, non-refillable aerosol dispenser, containing propellant(s), synergist(s) and other formulants, as required, intended for release of the active ingredient into the air in the form of an aerosol.
LNLong-Lasting insecticidal nets or nettingThe product must be formed from (or in the form of) netting, consisting of [denier, mono-/multi-filament, polymer type] fibres, treated with/incorporating, technical/formulated components together with any necessary other formulants, and synergist, if required. The product must appear clean and must be free from visible extraneous matter, visible damage (such as splitting or tearing) and visible manufacturing defects (such as poorly made seams or a weave that is either not uniform or too loose to remain uniform in use), and must be suitable for use as/in an insecticidal net with long-lasting activity.
Table 10: Multi-character liquid formulations
CodeNameDescription
ZCMixed formulations of CS and SCThe material must consist of a suspension of fine particles of technical material, combined with a suspension of microcapsules of technical material in an aqueous phase together with suitable formulants. After gentle agitation the material must appear homogeneous and be suitable for dilution in water.
ZWMixed formulations of CS and EWThe material must consist of an emulsion of fine droplets of technical material in the form of the combination of a suspension of microcapsules in an aqueous phase together with suitable formulants. After gentle agitation the material must appear homogeneous and be suitable for dilution in water.
ZEMixed formulations of CS and SEThe material must consist of an emulsion of fine droplets of technical material and a suspension of fine particles of technical material in an aqueous phase, together with suitable formulants. After gentle agitation the material must appear homogeneous and be suitable for dilution in water.
Table 11: Microbial pesticides and bacterial pesticides
CodeNameDescription
BTKBacterial larvicide technical concentratesThe material must consist of [Genus, species, subspecies and strain of bacterium] together with related by-products of the route of manufacture and must be in the form of technical concentrate, free from visible extraneous matter and added modifying agents, except for stabilizers (preservatives) and free-flow agents, if required.
BWPBacterial larvicide wettable powdersThe material must consist of an homogenous mixture of [Genus, species, subspecies and strain of bacterium], together with fillers and any other necessary formulants. It must be in the form of a fine powder (see WP) for dispersion in water. The formulation must be dry, free flowing, and free from visible extraneous matter and hard lumps.
BWGBacterial larvicide water-dispersible granulesThe material must consist of an homogenous mixture of [Genus, species, subspecies and strain of bacterium], together with fillers and any other necessary formulants. It must be in the form of granules (see WG) for application after disintegration and dispersion in water. The formulation must be dry, free flowing, and free from visible extraneous matter and hard lumps.
BWTBacterial larvicide water-dispersible tabletsThe material must consist of an homogenous mixture of [Genus, species, subspecies and strain of bacterium], together with fillers and any other necessary formulants. It must be in the form of tablets for application after disintegration and dispersion in water. The formulation must be dry, unbroken, free-flowing tablets and must be free from visible extraneous matter.
BSCBacterial larvicide suspension concentratesThe material must consist of a suspension of fine particles of [Genus, species, subspecies and strain of bacterium], in an aqueous phase together with suitable formulants. After agitation the material must be homogeneous and suitable for further dilution with water.